At present quality aluminum welding technology is not available and the oxide films create difficulties in provision of a qualitative flawless weld (argon arc welding and MIG type welding do not provide elimination of the oxide film residues, and defects are still present in the weld; laser welding is very expensive and requires creation of vacuum e.d. it is completely inapplicable on the work site).
Use of the reverse polarity provides additional advantages for a number of plasma arc technologies. A cathode spraying phenomenon allows to cleanse metal surfaces, solves the problem of qualitative welding of aluminum and magnesium alloys.
Application of plasma guns with an orificed anode makes it possible to use high production plasma arc welding and build-up welding by an electrode consisting of different types of metals. Application of the reverse polarity allows to widely regulate thermal and force impact on the welding area and depth of the penetration of the main metal. Though the known plasma arc guns using the method of the reverse polarity are low reliable.
It is considered that during reverse polarity operation plasma guns experience excessive heat loads which lead to sophisticated plasma guns design and increased dimensions.
A reverse polarity plasma gun developed is a simple device of minimum dimensions and mass, high power and reliability. In manual and automatic modes it allows to perform reverse polarity welding by penetrating and non-penetrating plasma arc, plasma soldering of the aluminum alloys by a low temperature method, plasma cutting with combined gas feeding ( Russia ’s Patent №2198772). There are no analogous methods in the world. The authors of the method were bestowed a gold medal of the 5th Moscow International Innovation and Investment Show ( Moscow , 2005).
Spheres of application of the proposed equipment and technologies for plasma arc processing of metals
1. 1 Automatic and manual modes of manufacturing and repairing constructions consisting of aluminum alloys under workshop conditions at the aviation, food engineering, chemical engineering, engineering, automobile and agricultural engineering industry enterprises.
- high quality of welded joints;
- high productivity when welding metal sheets of 5- 30 mm in thickness;
- possibility to weld any alloys;
- reduction of requirements for quality of the metal surfaces to be welded;
- high reliability of the equipment;
- simplicity in servicing;
1.2. Manufacturing and repairing the overall constructions consisting of aluminum alloys under conditions of mounting . Application: Mounting and repairing the equipment and overall containers produced for chemical, food, steel, motor-vehicle construction and shipbuilding industries.
Technical: equipment mobility that allows to work under condition of mounting and repairing the constructions of any dimensions; possibility of manufacturing and repairing the constructions with excessive thickness of the welded metal; high quality of the welded joints done in the open air, under windy conditions and excessive humidity.
Economical: no preliminary heating, reduction of requirements for quality preparation of the metal surfaces to be welded (no expenses related to the preliminary preparation of products).
(heat-resistant steels, titanium alloys, special alloys on the basis of nickel and a number of other types of metal)
Application: Manufacturing the duty welded constructions consisting of non-ferrous metals and heat-resistant alloys at the enterprises of special engineering industry, aircraft industry, chemical engineering industry etc. Plasma c guns are highly reliable, simple in servicing and cost-effective.
Much more advantages are provided in the process of automatic plasma arc welding with application of high-speed conditions while productivity being increased by 2-3 times.
Economical advantages: reducing the costs (up to 3-5 times) related to mechanical processing during preparation of joints for welding and cleansing the joints after welding; reducing the costs (up to 3-5 times) related to withdrawal of welding materials; increasing the quality of welded joints up to 100%.
This method allows to produce the parts with the tailored properties of the working faces and perform the work related to restoring of the working faces of the expensive products consisting of different alloys.
Application: Manufacturing and restoring the parts of the power-generating, electrical and hydraulic equipment, engines etc.
High power and reliability of plasma guns; possibility of continuous period of work using high power of the suppressed plasma arc; wide range welding modes regulation; high quality of the welded metal and high productivity results.
Plasma arc cutting allows to cut off any metals up to 50mm in thickness in manual and automatic modes.
Technical: High reliability and continuous period of work with automatic cutting in the uninterrupted mode; possibility to perform an unlimited number of switching on; reduction of costs related to operation of the electrode and nozzle units of a plasma gun what is particularly important in case of manual metal cutting; stability of cutting; reliability of the plasma gun do not depend on the dirt level of the welded metal, purity of the air and humidity; low dependence between the speed of cutting and length of plasma arc.
Economical: The cost of a running meter is reduced by 1,5 – 2 times in comparison with the known methods of plasma arc cutting.
The base module is a universal plasma arc welding block.
COMPOSITION OF THE WELDING BLOCK: plasma arc torches used for direct and reverse polarity welding; control block.
The main elements of the welding blocks are plasma guns. Due to a special design and high effectiveness of the thermal elements cooling plasma guns provided high reliability of the direct and reverse method of welding. Plasma arc guns combine simplicity in design and operation, small dimensions and mass and high power and reliability. Plasma guns design features are protected by a number of certificates of authorship and patents. The control block provides operation of the plasma guns in combination with any direct current source of power with float voltage not lower than 65V. The control block dimensions are 170х180х350 mm, mass - 6 кг . Field operation is supported by close-circuit cooling system equipment. In field conditions not more than 10 minutes are needed to prepare the control block for operation and connection it with the source of power and communications.
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